Welcome to Windows, and to the NVDA list!
CDex is a popular CD ripper: http://cdex.mu/
It looks up freedb and others (you can set the one you want). I must admit I always just rip to MP3 so I haven't looked into other formats with it. Just
looking at the features, you can set it to use OGG, FLAC, AAC, WMA and other formats.
I'm not as familiar with downloading videos, or torrent programs I'm afraid.
I tend to steer clear of driver downloaders - you just don't know what they are downloading and I think most of them cause more problems than they solve. Mostly I let Windows manage drivers and it does do this a lot more autonomously than it used to.
Sometimes it is worth double checking you are using the manufacturer's driver, though, particularly for audio and video drivers and in that case, I usually go to the manufacturer's website.
I'm not sure about that file error you're getting. AMD will be your processor and sys means it's a system file, possibly a driver, as you seem to have guessed, but beyond that, I'm not sure. Is anything happening immediately prior to it crashing? I
did a google search on the filename and got nothing (5 unrelated results) so whatever it is, it's evidently not overly common.
Speaking of the Chrome browser, you'll actually find that it works fairly well with NVDA if you do choose to install it. The popular browser with NVDA has traditionally been Firefox, but it can be worth keeping Chrome around just for the odd website that
works better with one than the other. Internet Explorer still works and still comes with Windows, even Windows 10. If you are on Windows 10, we do support the new browser "Edge", though personally, I'd still stick with one of the others for the most part.
If you are after a word processor that isn't Microsoft Office (MS Office works well with NVDA, but you asked about free), Jarte is a standalone one: http://www.jarte.com/
is a full office suite: http://libreoffice.org/
I can't think of what else to recommend off the top of my head, but all the best with your migration and do let us know if you encounter anything else you need help or a recommendation on.