Re: Maths?
David Moore
Hi all! I tutor Calculus to sighted people, so for me, this book would be such a great help. Please let me know when the book is ready and how to get it. Here is my email to give this info to me off list if you want. Thank you so much! David Moore Sent from Mail for Windows 10
From: Michael
Sent: Sunday, April 1, 2018 3:36 PM To: nvda@nvda.groups.io Subject: Re: [nvda] Maths?
Damien, My book is being reviewed at the moment. As soon as it is accepted, I will announce when and where it is released. The title is "Real Analysis For Blind Students". Real Analysis is the subbranch of mathematics where calculus resides. Actually, it is a subbranch of the analysis branch  the other subbranch being complex analysis. The book is intended for blind students whose declared major is mathematics. A disclaimer is in order. Every character in the book can be found on a standard English keyboard. There is no integral sign on a standard keyboard. I want the student to be able to write equations as well as read them. It is easier and faster to type "INT:" rather than hunting up the code for an integral sign. With a few exceptions like this one, the notation in the book conforms to that in a print (or electronic) text. A mathematics professor should consider the deviation from the standard very minor. If you want to insert an integral sign into an email for instance (or any other document), remember its special code and create a regular expression so that NVDA will recognize it. The modifications specified in the appendix only cover what is in the book and not any article on the internet. Add your own regular expressions to those I describe to cover cases I neglected. An equal sign stands between two expressions which are the same. I can make a similar statement using a different relation such as greater than or less than.An equation or inequality is between two expressions.
> Original Message > From: nvda@nvda.groups.io [mailto:nvda@nvda.groups.io] On Behalf Of Damien > Garwood > Sent: Sunday, April 01, 2018 11:44 AM > To: nvda@nvda.groups.io > Subject: Re: [nvda] Maths? > > Hi, > That book actually sounds quite interesting. What branch of maths does it > cover, and what level would you expect your audience to be at? I've never > quite been a maths buff in my schooldays and, as with a lot of other > things, > now I'm learning (or trying to learn) at my own pace, I'm finding I > understand a lot more. I'd still say I was only at a basic level though. > Currently getting my head around scientific notation. > However, I digress. Back to my particular problems. > Problem 2 would seem to be that it is in MathML, in which case a message > would be helpful for those, like me until about ten minutes ago, who don't > have Mathplayer installed. > Problem 3 seems to be to do with font changes (apparently there is a font > called superscript which is used to denote exponents which I never knew > about, hence the 102 instead of 10^2). Of course this is going to cause > problems for people like me who have font announcement turned off. But the > thing is, other than that, why else would you need to know when/if the > font > of something changed? If fonts are going to be used to represent numbers > and > mathematical operations then surely they should be announced > automatically? > I don't know enough about fonts and formatting to know how this kind of > thing works. > As for MathPlayer, has anyone had any luck with it? There may be a > navigation commands document but I just can't get my head around it, > especially since it talks about expressions and equations (Aren't they the > same thing?), not to mention making the content sound much more advanced > than is really necessary. Then, there also doesn't seem to be a way to > copy, > or I guess the more accurate word would be convert, the mathematical > content > into plaintext, for pasting into a text document. The joys of incompatible > formatting... > Cheers. > Damien. > Original Message > From: Michael > Sent: Sunday, April 01, 2018 3:00 PM > To: nvda@nvda.groups.io > Subject: Re: [nvda] Maths? > > Damien, > The material below is from the appendix to a calculus book for blind > students I have written. Its position in the market place has not yet been > decided. > I hope it helps you. > Appendix 2 How To Modify The Speech Dictionary In NVDA > > NVDA is a screen reading program produced by NV Access(R). It speaks the > information about various parts of the active window in response to > keystrokes pressed by the user. If the keystroke is not an NVDA command, > NVDA merely echoes the keystroke. But, if it is an NVDA command keystroke > such as NVDAkey + t, NVDA tells the user something about the active > window. > In the case of NVDAKey + t, NVDA announces the title of the active > window. > NVDA commands take the form of the NVDAkey followed by a letter. The > INSERT > key is by default the NVDAkey. However, NVDA allows the user to change > the > NVDAkey to the CapsLock key if desired. > The user can control how NVDA announces a string of characters. If the > user > wants NVDA to speak a particular string of characters a certain way, he or > she can make an entry in its speech dictionary for that particular string > of > characters. After this entry is saved into the speech dictionary, whenever > that particular string of characters is encountered, NVDA speaks it > according to the entry just made in the speech dictionary. > For example, NVDA ordinarily speaks the word tortilla with an "L" sound > rather than a "y" sound. To force NVDA to pronounce it with the "y" > sound, > there must be an entry in the speech dictionary to instruct NVDA to speak > the string of characters "torteeya" as desired. > To make such an entry do the following. > STEP 1: Put focus on the main NVDA menu with the keystroke NVDAkey + n. > The user can arrow down through a list of submenus. Or, press the letter > "p" to go to the preferences menu. The first menu under "Preferences" is > 'General'. The user may arrow down the the Speech Dictionary or type 'd" > and > NVDA will jump into the > default speech dictionary, There are three entries. They are respectively > "Default", > "voice", and "temporary". I suggest putting my changes into the default > dictionary. > But before entering the default dictionnary, a word about the other two > choices is in order. > The user can arrow once to the voice dictionary which is the dictionary > belonging > to the synthesizer currently running. For instance, if the Microsoft > Speech > Platform synthesizer is running, arrowing to the Voice Dictionary opens > the > dictionary whose entries govern the speech under that synthesizer. The > entries in this > dictionary apply to the Microsoft Speech Platform session and not to any > other synthesizer that has been installed. Whatever synthesizer is > running, > the entries in the default speech dictionary apply. > The tempory dictionary is like the voice dictionary, but it is erased when > you exit the NVDA session. > Entering the default dictionary. A list of entries will appear. The user > may add a new entry or arrow down to an entry he or she wishes to change. > To > add a new entry Tab once. To change an entry, arrow down the the entry in > question and tab twice. Or to remove the entry in question, tab three > times. > But the object of this appendix is to add entries in support of the > calculus > book. > So, tab only once to add an entry. Focus will be on the "Add" button. > Press > the ENTER key to activate it. NVDA says "add a dictionary entry dialogue, > pattern edit". Focus is now in an edit box. The string of characters to be > entered here is the string of characters as they appear in the text, that > is, the actual character string encountered by the reading cursor. As an > example, type in the word tortilla. Press the TAB key ". again, and the > focus will be in another edit box. NVDA will say "replacement pattern > edit". > The replacement string to be typed will force NVDA to pronounce the word > tortilla with a 'y' sound rather than an 'l' sound. That pattern is > "tortee > ya". > Tab again to put focus in a comment edit box. Tabbing again puts focus on > a > check box called "Case sensitive". Its default value is "not checked". To > make the replacement happen only when tortilla is upper case (either its > first letter or all of them), press the space bar to check it. > Tabbing again puts focus on a combo box whose entries are respectively > "anywhere, "forward", and "regular expression". The "anywhere" choice > means that the pattern being replaced may appear either by itself or > anywhere in a longer string of > nonblank characters. The "forward" choice means that the pattern being > replaced must appear at the very front of a longer string of characters. > Of > course, it may appear by itself and not part of a longer string of > characters. If the "forward" choice is picked, and the pattern being > replaced appears following one or more nonblank characters, NVDA will > not > speak using the replacement pattern. > > Regular expressions are required to address certain situations where more > flexibility is needed, and they will be discussed later. For now, suffice > it > to say, that in the case of a regular expression, the pattern to be > replaced > > and the replacement pattern will contain special characters that will > cause a more suffisticated replacement to take place. > Now, the user is ready to implement the changes specified below. > However, since NVDA supports regular expressions, some of them will not be > entered into the NVDA speech dictionary. > The speech dictionary dialog may ask you if the Actual Pattern should be > case > sensitive. If you check "no", then any characters in the Actual Pattern > string > may be either upper or lower case. If however, you check "yes", then the > characters in the Actual Pattern string must exactly match the case of the > characters encountered in the text before the Replacement Pattern will be > triggorred. > The changes listed below do not need case sensitivity unless otherwise > stated. > > > SECTION0.1 Modifications For Chapter 1 Number Systems > > Chapter 1 discusses number systems which uses * for multiplication, / for > division, + for addition, and  for subtraction. > One change for chapter 1 is that for section headings, "SECTION". > Actual Pattern="SECTION", Replacement Pattern="section" > The other change is that Subscripts in this book are indicated by the > suffix underscore plus an integer. An example is x_0 for x sub zero. > Actual Pattern=_", Replacement Pattern="sub" > Some readers may wish to hear x^2 read as x squared rather than x raised > to > exponent 2 and also x^3 read as x cubed. . If the reader is willing to > treat these two cases as special cases, the preferred reading can be > supported as follows. Use two carot symbols instead of one, and preceed > the > carots with a space. Without that space, the variable name may not be > spoken > clearly. For example, write x cubed as x ^^3. > This will require the user to make the following changes to the speech > dictionary. > Add the following entry. > Actual Pattern ^^2 and Replacement Pattern squared. > The change for x cubed is similar. > > SECTION0.2 Modifications for Chapter 2 Functions > Chapter 2 discusses functions of one and of two variables. I introduce > notation for exponents, denominators, and absolute value. > Below is a list of changes I propose to make to the speech dictionary for > chapter 2. > It would be nice if the characters "f(x)" is spoken as > "f of x". But, we also want "g(t)" to be read as "g of t". > IN other words, we want the function name to be any character upper or > lower > > case and to have a subscript. We also want flexibility in the number of > independent variables and also flexibility of variable names. > Three regular expressions working together accomplish this goal. > > Regular expression recognizing the function name and opening parenthesis.: > Actual Pattern: > "([azAZ])\(" > Replacement Pattern: > "\1 of open parenthesis " > > Regular expression recognizing all arguments which are followed by a > comma: > Actual Pattern: > "*([azAZ]?)(\_?\d*)([/\.]?\d*) *([][+]?) *([azA > Z]?)(\_?\d*)([/\.]?\d*) > *[\,]{1}" > Replacement Pattern: > "\1 \2 \3 \4 \5 \6 \7 , " > > Regular expression recognizing an argument not followed by a comma: > Actual Pattern: > "*([azAZ]*)(\_?\d*)([/\.]?\d*) *([][+]?) *([azA > Z]?)(\_?\d*)([/\.]?\d*) > *\)" > Replacement Pattern: > "\1 \2 \3 \4 \5\6 \7 close parenthesis " > > > H(x0) will be read as "h of x". The function name (f, g, h, or any other > letter) > does not matter. > The following changes do not involve regular expressions. > > > actualPattern=:R>R, Replacement Pattern= maps R into R > > Actual Pattern="+/", Replacement Pattern="plus or minus" > Actual Pattern="<=", Replacement Pattern="less than or equal to" > Actual Pattern=">=", Replacement Pattern="greater than or equal to" > ActualPattern=!, Replacement Pattern=factorial > ActualPattern=_, Replacement Pattern=sub > > Actual Pattern="(/", Replacement Pattern="open parenthesis begin > denominator" > Actual Pattern="/)", Replacement Pattern="end of denominator close > parenthesis" > Actual Pattern="(^", Replacement Pattern="open parenthesis begin exponent" > Actual Pattern="^)", Replacement Pattern="end of exponent close > parenthesis" > Actual Pattern="(", Replacement Pattern="open parenthesis begin absolute > value" > Actual Pattern=")", Replacement Pattern="end of absolute value close > parenthesis" > > Actual Pattern="}/", Replacement Pattern="open brace begin denominator" > Actual Pattern="/}", Replacement Pattern="end of denominator close brace" > Actual Pattern="{^", Replacement Pattern="open brace begin exponent" > Actual Pattern="^}", Replacement Pattern="end of exponent close brace" > Actual Pattern="{", Replacement Pattern="open brace begin absolute value" > Actual Pattern="}", Replacement Pattern="end of absolute value close > brace" > > Actual Pattern="[/", Replacement Pattern="open bracket begin denominator" > Actual Pattern="/]", Replacement Pattern="end of denominator close > bracket" > Actual Pattern="[^", Replacement Pattern="open bracket begin exponent" > Actual Pattern="^]", Replacement Pattern="end of exponent close bracket" > Actual Pattern="[", Replacement Pattern="open bracket begin absolute > value" > Actual Pattern="]", Replacement Pattern="end of absolute value close > bracket" > > NOTE: In the text, I only use parentheses to specify begin and end of > exponents, denominators, and absolute value. It is up to you whether to > use > braces and brackets as well. But, if you do decide to use braces and > brackets > n addition to parentheses, I strongly suggest > that the Replacement Pattern mentions the brace or bracket . unless you > do, > the speech will not help you keep track of opening and closing braces and > brackets. If documents you send to your professor do not have an equal > number > of opening and closing braces/brackets/parentheses, he or she will think > you are confused and maybe lower your grade. > > SECTION0.3Modifications For Chapters 3, 4, and 5 > The chapter on limits only needs two changes to the speech dictionary. No > changes are needed for chapters 4 and 5. > > Actual Pattern="lim:", Replacement Pattern="limit as" > Actual Pattern=">", Replacement Pattern="approaches" > > SECTION0.4Modifications For Chapters 6, 7, and 8 > > Regular expression for what variable a derivative is taken with respect > to: > Actual Pattern: > "(\/)d([azAZ])(\))" > Replacement Pattern: > "with respect to \2" > > Actual Pattern= (d0 > Replacement Pattern="Open parenthesis ze rowth derivative" > > Actual Pattern="(d1" > Replacement Pattern="Open parenthesis first derivative" > > Actual Pattern= "(d2" > Replacement Pattern=" Open parenthesis second derivative" > > Actual Pattern= "(d3" > Replacement Pattern="Open parenthesis third derivative" > Ordinary derivative whose differentiation level is specified by an > integer: > Fourth derivative: > Actual Pattern: > "(d4" > Replacement Pattern: > "open parenthesis fourth derivative" > > Eighth derivative: > Actual Pattern: > "(d8" > Replacement Pattern: > "Open parenthesis eighthth derivative " > > The first, second, third, fourth, and eighth derivatives are entries that > are > not regular expressions. They are more understandable when not handled by > a > regular expression. > However, the fifth, sixth, seventh, and ninth derivatives are all handled > by > a > regular expression. Their replacement patterns are very understandable. > Regular expression recognizing fifth, sixth, seventh, and ninth > derivatives: > Actual Pattern: > "(\()d([5679])" > Replacement Pattern: > "open parenthesis \2 th derivative" > > Ordinary derivatives whose differentiation level is specified by an index > variable: > This regular expression comes into play in a future chapter, but it fits > here. > Actual Pattern: > "(\()d([azAZ])([][+]?)([19]?)" > Replacement Pattern: > "open parenthesis \2 th \3 \4 derivative" > > > SECTION0.5 Modifications For Chapter 9, Rieman Integration > This chapter introduces notations for summation and for integrals. > I leave it to the reader whether or not to make this group case sensitive. > I > mean demanding that the characters "int" should be upper case to prevent > collisions in the text. > > > Actual Pattern="INT:", Replacement Pattern="integral" > > Actual Pattern="INT:{", Replacement Pattern="integral lower bound" > > Actual Pattern="}{", Replacement Pattern="and upper bound" > > Actual Pattern="}:", Replacement Pattern="of the integrand" > > Actual Pattern="INT{}", Replacement Pattern="indefinite integral" > > Actual Pattern="INT{}:", Replacement Pattern="indefinite integral of the > integrand" > > Actual Pattern="INT:{}", Replacement Pattern="integral" > > I found myself entering the above integral notations using brackets > instead > of braces, so I recommend including the following just to make the > entering > text more forgiving. > Actual pattern="INT [", replacement pattern="integral lower bound" > actual pattern ="][", replacement pattern ="and upper bound" > actual pattern ="]:", replacement pattern ="of the integrand" > actual pattern ="INT[]", replacement pattern ="indefinite integral" > actual pattern ="INT[]:", replacement pattern ="indefinite integral of the > integrand" > > Your professor might prefer the representation of an upper bound used in > latex which is "\to". > Actual Pattern="\to", Replacement Pattern="and upper bound" > > Actual Pattern="INTI:", Replacement Pattern="inner integral" > > Actual Pattern="INTM:", Replacement Pattern="middle integral" > > Actual Pattern="INTO:", Replacement Pattern="outer integral" > > SECTION0.6 Modifications for Chapter 12 Vectors > > actual pattern={x+y}, > Replacement Pattern=open brace begin norm x+y end norm close brace > > Actual pattern=DET2, Replacement Pattern=second order determinant > > Actual pattern=DET3, Replacement Pattern=third order determinant > > Actual pattern=(.), Replacement Pattern=dot product > > Actual pattern=(*), Replacement Pattern=cross product > > SECTION0.7 Modifications For Chapter 13 > > Partial derivative whose differentiation level is specified by an integer: > Fourth partial derivative: > Actual Pattern: > "(pd4" > Replacement Pattern: > "open parenthesis fourth partial derivative" > > Eighth partial derivative: > Actual Pattern: > "(pd8" > Replacement Pattern: > "open parenthesis eighth partial derivative" > > Regular expression recognizing fifth, sixth, seventh, and ninth partial > derivatives: > Actual Pattern: > "(\()pd([5679] )" > Replacement Pattern: > "open parenthesis \2 th partial derivative > > Partial derivative whose differentation level is specified by an index > variable: > Actual Pattern: > "(\()pd([azAZ])([][+]?)([19]?)" > Replacement Pattern: > open parenthesis \2 th \3 \4 partial > derivative > > > SECTION0.8 Modifications For Chapters 14, 15, 16, and 17 > > actualWord=:R>Rn Replacement Pattern=maps R into R n > > actualWord=:R2>R2 Replacement Pattern=maps R2 into R2 > > actualWord=:R3>R3 Replacement Pattern=maps R3 into R3 > > actualWord=:Rn>Rn Replacement Pattern=maps R n into R n > > actualWord=:R2>R Replacement Pattern=maps R2 into R > > actualWord=:R3>R Replacement Pattern=maps R3 into R > > actualWord=:RN>R Replacement Pattern=maps RN into R > > > This group is case sensitive. > > Actual Pattern="DINT::", Replacement Pattern="double integral" > > Actual Pattern="LINT::", Replacement Pattern="line integral over curve" > > Actual Pattern="SINT::", Replacement Pattern="surface integral" > > Actual Pattern="TINT::", Replacement Pattern="triple integral" > > There is a set of notations for derivatives for which I made no entries > into > the speech dictionary. It is not uncommon to represent a derivative by > following the function name with an apostrophe. For example, f'(x) > represents the first derivative of f(x). Likewise, f''(x) is the second > derivative of f(x). You may occasionally encounter three apostrophes for > third derivative such as for example f'''(x). However, it is unlikely that > the student will ever see more than three apostrophes for differentiation. > In fact, the use of apostrophe for differentiation is more prevalent in > differential equations books than in a calculus text. > So, if the student hears y' or y'', he or she should understand that > differentiation is being represented. Just get used to it. > Testing regular expressions involving carrot and parenthesis exposed a > problem in two of the seven synthesizers I exercised. Those two are > Microsoft Speech Platform and Microsoft SAPI5. The other five synthesizers > passed the test. > I tested regular expressions for beginning and ending exponential > expressions. > My syntax for these exponential expressions is that the expressions are > bracketed between (^ and ^). > > Regular expression to recognize beginning of exponential expression: > Actual Pattern: > [\(][\^] > Replacement Pattern: > Begin exponent > > > Regular expression to recognize end of exponential expression: > Actual Pattern: > [\^][\)] > Replacement Pattern: > end of exponent > > The regular expression for the end of an exponential expression fails to > recognize the end. > The regular expression for the beginning exponential expression works as > expected. > The two regular expressions are very similar. Why does one work and not > the > other? > Here are some test cases: > (^ ^) > (^w+3^) > I then wrote a regular expression to recognize the pair "()", and NVDA > sees > the closing parenthesis but not the opening one. Puzzling! > > The following synthesizers execute these regular expressions correctly. > Eloquence, > ESpeak NG, > Soft Voice, > Speech Player ESpeak, > SVox Pico Synthesizer, > The following synthesizers did not execute these regular expressions > correctly. > Microsoft Speech API Version 5, > Microsoft Speech Platform > For these last two synthesizers, I input the regular expressions into > their > Voice Dictionaries. > > (^ w + 3^) > Begin exponent is recognized but not the end of exponent. > > This is not a fix but what I did to expose the problem. > NOTE: The number of spaces specified in the replacement patterns for > regular > expressions should not be ignored. Some parts of the replacement string > may > be spoken so quickly, that you, the listener, may hear them as a > nonintelligible blip. > C Michael R. Cross > > > > Original Message > > From: nvda@nvda.groups.io [mailto:nvda@nvda.groups.io] On Behalf Of > Damien > > Garwood > > Sent: Sunday, April 01, 2018 8:29 AM > > To: nvda@nvda.groups.io > > Subject: Re: [nvda] Maths? > > > > Hi, > > You can find extensive examples of problem 3 at: > > https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_notation > > Problem 2 can be seen at: > https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normalized_number > > Can't find one containing problem 1 off the top of my head, though like > I > > said, problem 2 is becoming more common now. > > Cheers. > > Damien. > > Original Message > > From: Antony Stone > > Sent: Sunday, April 01, 2018 2:23 PM > > To: nvda@nvda.groups.io > > Subject: Re: [nvda] Maths? > > > > Please point us at an example of such an article so we can see for > > ourselves > > what it seems to contain. > > > > Otherwise we're just guessing, based on your guesses, about what might > be > > going on. > > > > Antony. > > > > On Sunday 01 April 2018 at 14:31:53, Damien Garwood wrote: > > > > > Hi, > > > Not sure whether it's NVDA, or me. > > > When I attempt to read articles that explain mathematical operations, > > > explanations of scientific notation being a great example, I generally > > > experience one or more of the following: > > > > > > 1. Graphics which, I assume would seem to have some sort of formula in > > it, > > > but using strange symbols like  and _ where I might expect to see > > > operators > > > like +, , * or /. Though I'm not seeing these as often as I used to > > now. > > > > > > 2. Spaces, sometimes contained in lists, without anything in them, and > > > with > > > text following it which attempts to explain something which just > doesn't > > > seem to exist. This seems to have replaced the "graphical formula" > > > strategy. > > > > > > 3. A formula written out in plaintext, but with some of the operators > > > missing, making NVDA announce it as a big number (mainly happens when > > > dealing with exponentiation), for example 102 instead of 10^2. > > > > > > Is there something I should be doing differently here? > > > > > > I would have thought reading maths would be like reading anything > > > else...How > > > wrong I am. Cheers. Damien. > > > >  > > Most people have more than the average number of legs. > > > > Please reply to the > > list; > > please *don't* > CC > > me. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > >

