You won't need to have a desktop shortcut or one in the start menu or taskbar/quick launch bar, but I'm never without at least one, if not both, of those for when I want to simply start the web browser (or any other program I frequently use stand alone rather than, say clicking through on a link).
Here are the generic instructions for getting a shortcut on to your desktop for a good, old-fashioned application program like IE11. It involves a little bit, but not much, extra work under Windows 10.
1. Hit the Windows key then start typing the name of the program you wish to make a shortcut for. In this specific instance, Internet Explorer.
2. In most cases, and you should always check, if your search criteria was specific enough that program will be the first entry in the search results. Your screen reader will announce the application name followed by "desktop app" if it's actually what used to be called a program as opposed to the new universal apps. If it's not the first returned result use the down arrow key to check what else has come back until you find the program you're looking for in the returned search results. Hit whatever key or key sequence is necessary to invoke the context menu, usually the menu/application key or SHIFT+F10
3. Once the context menu comes up, use the down arrow to get to "Open file location."
4. Now the File Explorer window will be open with the program file or its shortcut selected already. It doesn't matter which. Again, hit the key or key sequence to bring up the Context Menu. Hit 'N' to activate the Send to menu item, then hit D to take you to the Desktop, Create Shortcut option and hit Enter.
5. You now have a desktop shortcut.
6. If you wish to pin this shortcut on the quick launch bar or start menu:
a) Open File Explorer and choose Desktop from the Tree View
b) Locate the shortcut you wish to pin and make sure it is selected
c) Again, bring up the Context Menu
i) Hit the letter P to pin the shortcut to the Start Menu. Be aware that the 'P' is a toggle in this context, and if the shortcut happens to already be pinned to the Start Menu this will UNpin it.
ii) Hit the letter K to pin the shortcut to the Taskbar/Quick Launch Bar.
I worry a lot. . . I worry that no matter how cynical you become it's never enough to keep up.
~ Trudy, in Jane Wagner's "Search for Signs of Intelligent Life in the Universe"