Re: Elements not being reported with NVDA
Yes, there is a way to read these, though it is inconvenient.
Select the link (k or tab or whatever), and enter focus mode (NVDA-space). then read to end of current text (numpad plus on desktop keyboard mode), or use current and next line commands (8-9 on numpad, desktop mode) to read the current text. Then NVDA-space or escape to get back out of focus mode.
This is not the only aria-label issue currently extant, but I don't think I've seen this one mentioned specifically.
You might want to have a look through the issues here, and if this one isn't described anywhere (it's not on the first page of results, but there are a few), post a new one.
I tried it in FF and Chrome, and got the same results as you.