Date   

Re: Buttons and links not reading.

Brian Moore
 

Hi.  What browser are you using?


I have never seen this behavior and I can't think of a setting to turn those control types off?


Did it work when you first re-installed the system and then stopped?


Happy to try and help.

Brian.

Contact me on skype: brian.moore
follow me on twitter:
http://www.twitter.com/bmoore123

On 2019-09-06 9:46 a.m., Chantelle Buys wrote:
Afternoon everyone.

I had to reinstall windows and now that it's up to date again I've
found that NVDA won't do the following.

1. It doesn't read buttons for instance it doesn't say compose button
or link download. It only reads the buttons and links without saying
if it is a button or link.

Also, it doesn't say editable when you get to an edit box.

Is there a setting that I have to change?

Thanks.

Chantelle


Re: NVDA and pausing for specific punctuation

Gene
 

I don't know if the synthesizer controls that or the screen-reader.
 
Gene
----- Original Message -----

Sent: Friday, September 06, 2019 6:49 AM
Subject: [nvda] NVDApausing

While listening to text does NVDDA know to come to a full pause after a period and a momentary pause after a comma?

 

 ******

Jesus says, follow me and I'll help you through the rough spots.

the world says, hey come with me. My way is broad and easy. So what if you get crap on your shoes. You can always wash it off, can't you!                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Sent from Mail for Windows 10

 


Re: Section Symbol not reading

rae.rankin@...
 

Quentin,
I'm using the symbol for the word section §. I deal with documents that reference legislation. For example a document (Word, Powerpoint, PDF, etc) says "Article 6, § 3351.4."

I've looked in the punctuation formatting and I can see the symbol in there and have it set to read it always. But it doesn't. It skips the symbol all together. 

Thanks,

 

Rae


Buttons and links not reading.

Chantelle Buys
 

Afternoon everyone.

I had to reinstall windows and now that it's up to date again I've
found that NVDA won't do the following.

1. It doesn't read buttons for instance it doesn't say compose button
or link download. It only reads the buttons and links without saying
if it is a button or link.

Also, it doesn't say editable when you get to an edit box.

Is there a setting that I have to change?

Thanks.

Chantelle

--
Never give up, at any cost.


Re: Scope of the Calibre addon

Blaster
 

Thanks for the clarification, Although it's very disappointing.

Blaster

On 9/6/19, Mallard <mallard@...> wrote:
Yes, that's Ebook-converter Gui, which I still have, but it's only for
converting ebooks, and not for reading them.


The Calibre menus have become somewhat more accessible with the advent
of QT5, as far as I understand, but the text within the viewer is still
unreadable by screen readers.


I don't now whether text is encrypted or what, but it appears to be
presented as an image, even if it's text.

Using Win10 OCR, you can read the text, otherwise nothing doing.


The same thing happens in Sumatra pdf, in both pdf and epub files.


Ciao,

Ollie




Il 05/09/2019 17:54, Blaster ha scritto:
I remembered reading about a modified front-end version of Calibre
that was created by the former owner of the TechTalk list, Carlos,
Since I don't use ePub I can't tell you if this version will do what
you want it to do, but you can download an installer or a portable
version here and you can give it a try:

Calibre front-end installer:
http://opopanax.net/download/Setup_eBook-convert_GUI.exe

Calibre front-end portable:
http://opopanax.net/download/eBook-convert_GUI_Portable.zip

Both versions require that you have Calibre already installed, this is
just a front-end addon.
As Carlos was an NVDA user, I'm sure it will be totally accessible,
here's an excerpt from the readme file:
Calibre is an application for organizing and converting eBooks. It's
ability to convert between many eBook formats is one of it's more
useful features. Unfortunately, it is not very accessible and
although you can use the included ebook-convert command line utility
to convert files, many people are not comfortable with this approach.
eBook-convert GUI is a so called frontend for the ebook-convert.exe
command line utility. It can convert individual files and entire
folders including subfolders from any supported format to any other.

HTH,
Blaster



On 9/5/19, Mallard <mallard@...> wrote:
Hello Jens,


May I contact you off list?


Ciao,

Ollie




Il 05/09/2019 17:22, Jens Gierke ha scritto:
Hi Ollie,

thank you for your mail.
The copyright argument is really a poor one. As sighted person you can
select text with the mouse in the book and copy it somewhere else.
And the copyright argument becomes even more ridiculous as Calibre
contains an editor for editing ebooks - at least DRM-free ones...
So I will stay unpacking Epubs and read the containing HTML files until
I will find the time to work on a contribution for Calibre...

Best regards,
Jens


Am 04.09.2019 um 13:42 schrieb Mallard:
Hello,


As far as I nkow, ebooks in the Calibre Viewer are presented as
images,
or encrypted somehow, so they can't be read. In order to see the text,
you have to use the OCR function in NVDA, which is absolutely out of
the
question.


When I asked the devs what is the reason behind this behaviour, I was
told it's because of copyright...


It honestly escapes me why ebooks aer copyrighted only when a blind
person has to read them, while sighted people can read the text
without
issues...


I'd somewhat understand this if it applied only to drm-protected
books,
but it applies to anything... Even to drm-free books.


Ciao,

Ollie


Il 31/08/2019 14:27, Jens Gierke ha scritto:
Hi,

I'm irritated about the Calibre addon for NVDA. Does it allow reading
ebooks with Calibre or is it only to make use of the converter
capabilities? Even with the addon installed I'm not able to read any
book content in Calibre's ebook viewer. There is no browse mode and
also
the review cursor/object navigation doesn't help.

Best regards,
Jens









Re: An accessible ID3 tagger and file renamer.

Steve Matzura
 

While MP3Tag does have a file rename function based on a file's metadata, if you want a file renamer that renames files based on their name, try this one. https://www.bulkrenameutility.co.uk. Very accessible, full-featured,and free!

On 9/5/2019 1:32 PM, John Isige wrote:
Thanks! I'll definitely take a look at it.


On 9/5/2019 9:32, Kenny wrote:
You may want to give this program a try:

https://www.mp3tag.de/en/


Very powerful program. It's completely accessible. Has a great support
forem too.


On 9/1/2019 8:11 PM, John Isige wrote:
Hey all. Anybody have a recommendation for an accessible ID3
tagger/file renamer? Basically I'd like something that will get the
info, if it can, and fill everything in and rename directories per my
specification, instead of having to do it all myself. No, not iTunes,
assuming it can even do it. I've tried ID3 Renamer, and though it's
seems fairly accessible, I can't for the life of me figure out how to
point it at a directory. Free would be good but I'll consider paying
if I can try it first. So far the jobs have been small enough that
I've just done them by hand.


I could fill it in myself, it's downloads from Document Records so
the info's easy enough to find, but that would be really boring. They
really should have done it themselves, but they didn't, so here I am
with three albums worth of songs to tag and rename, and I'll be
downloading stuff from them in the future. So I guess I should
finally find a working solution for this.


Re: NVDA and pausing for specific punctuation

Luke Davis
 

On Fri, 6 Sep 2019, Robert Doc Wright godfearer wrote:

While listening to text does NVDDA know to come to a full pause after a period and a momentary pause after a comma?
It does, but how much it pauses is entirely dependent upon which speech synth you are using.

Your best bet is to write something up in notepad, and test the pauses, if you want to know more.

Luke


NVDA and pausing for specific punctuation

Robert Doc Wright godfearer
 

While listening to text does NVDDA know to come to a full pause after a period and a momentary pause after a comma?

 

 ******

Jesus says, follow me and I'll help you through the rough spots.

the world says, hey come with me. My way is broad and easy. So what if you get crap on your shoes. You can always wash it off, can't you!                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Sent from Mail for Windows 10

 


Re: NVDA treating an interactive shell running under command line a little bit odd - php interactive interpreter

Jacob Kruger
 

Thanks, Luke - hadn't even considered that, but, now when I enabled Use UI Automation to access the Windows Console when available  check box under advanced settings, it suddenly started reading out text as I typed it in.


Stay well


Jacob Kruger
082 413 4791
"Resistance is futile...but, acceptance is versatile..."

On 2019-09-06 11:53 AM, Luke Davis wrote:
Have you tried running this with UIA turned on for the shell, in NVDA Advanced settings?

Luke


Re: NVDA treating an interactive shell running under command line a little bit odd - php interactive interpreter

Luke Davis
 

Have you tried running this with UIA turned on for the shell, in NVDA Advanced settings?

Luke

--
Luke Davis
Moderator: the new NVDA Help mailing list! (https://groups.io/g/NVDAHelp)
Author: Debug Helper NVDA add-on (https://addons.nvda-project.org/addons/debugHelper.en.html)


Re: Notepad++ add on - getting it to work?

Jacob Kruger
 

Try uninstalling, and reinstalling the add-on, just in case?


Jacob Kruger
Blind Biker
"Resistance is futile...but, acceptance is versatile..."

On 2019-09-06 11:12 AM, Aine Kelly Costello wrote:
No, I looked there in the tree view and it doesn't appear ... 

On 6/09/2019, at 10:48 AM, Jacob Kruger <jacob@...> wrote:

While focused on notepad++, activate NVDA menu, preferences, and input gestures, and then, double-check to see if there's a tree view item for notepad++, with something like 6 commands listed under it?


That's what shows up here on my laptop?


Jacob Kruger
Blind Biker
"Resistance is futile...but, acceptance is versatile..."
On 2019-09-05 9:44 PM, George Kerscher wrote:

Hi,

 

I have not tested all the features, but you could try NVDA+shift+backslash, which should announce the linenumber , column number and what is selected.

 

If that works, the add on is working. I have not gotten the MD function to work, but I have not spent a lot of time on it.


Best

George

 

 

From: nvda@nvda.groups.io <nvda@nvda.groups.io> On Behalf Of Aine Kelly Costello
Sent: Thursday, September 5, 2019 11:27 AM
To: nvda@nvda.groups.io
Subject: [nvda] Notepad++ add on - getting it to work?

 

Hi all,

 

I’m not sure what I’m doing wrong. The Notepad++ addon says it’s installed and add-on manager says it’s enabled, but it doesn’t actually appear to be working, seeing as none of the keyboard shortcuts I’ve been trying are doing anything. I’m using the English US international keyboard.

 

I’ve tried restarting NVDA and the computer, along with reading through the add-on documentation. What else can I try, please?

 

Cheers,

 

Áine

 


NVDA treating an interactive shell running under command line a little bit odd - php interactive interpreter

Jacob Kruger
 

Since my primary work is as a web developer, working under PHP, etc., at times, I might want to just use the command line interface of the PHP interactive interpreter to carry out some tasks in sort of real-time.


Anyway, since I have made sure php.exe for my current development environment is included in my system path variable, this means that from the command line = cmd.exe - I can type in php -a, and it will activate the interactive console.


The funny thing is NVDA will read out any responses, or output, or error messages to me - for example, typing in the following line:

echo "hello world";


But, it doesn't read out any typing/input to me, which means I keep on wanting to review what I've typed in before executing it - and, yes, it can read line, word, characterr, etc. as per usual.


Now, this is not the end of the world, but, I find it odd, and, for example, as a test, if I turn off NVDA, and bring up MS narrator, running under windows 10 64 bit v. 1903, then narrator treats that console perfectly normally, and, before activating the PHP interactive interface, NVDA does read out everything to me.


Now, in case relevant, here's a bit of the NVDA log that I pulled out while this interface was active:

IAccessible accName: u'C:\\WINDOWS\\system32\\cmd.exe - php  -a'
IAccessible accRole: ROLE_SYSTEM_CLIENT
IAccessible accState: STATE_SYSTEM_FOCUSED, STATE_SYSTEM_FOCUSABLE, STATE_SYSTEM_VALID (1048580)
IAccessible accDescription: None
IAccessible accValue: None


Lastly, just in case, and since I have quite a few different add-ons installed, I did also try restarting NVDA with add-ons disabled, and, it made no difference.


Thoughts?


Jacob Kruger
Blind Biker
"Resistance is futile...but, acceptance is versatile..."

On 2019-09-06 11:12 AM, Aine Kelly Costello wrote:
No, I looked there in the tree view and it doesn't appear ... 

On 6/09/2019, at 10:48 AM, Jacob Kruger <jacob@...> wrote:

While focused on notepad++, activate NVDA menu, preferences, and input gestures, and then, double-check to see if there's a tree view item for notepad++, with something like 6 commands listed under it?


That's what shows up here on my laptop?


Jacob Kruger
Blind Biker
"Resistance is futile...but, acceptance is versatile..."
On 2019-09-05 9:44 PM, George Kerscher wrote:

Hi,

 

I have not tested all the features, but you could try NVDA+shift+backslash, which should announce the linenumber , column number and what is selected.

 

If that works, the add on is working. I have not gotten the MD function to work, but I have not spent a lot of time on it.


Best

George

 

 

From: nvda@nvda.groups.io <nvda@nvda.groups.io> On Behalf Of Aine Kelly Costello
Sent: Thursday, September 5, 2019 11:27 AM
To: nvda@nvda.groups.io
Subject: [nvda] Notepad++ add on - getting it to work?

 

Hi all,

 

I’m not sure what I’m doing wrong. The Notepad++ addon says it’s installed and add-on manager says it’s enabled, but it doesn’t actually appear to be working, seeing as none of the keyboard shortcuts I’ve been trying are doing anything. I’m using the English US international keyboard.

 

I’ve tried restarting NVDA and the computer, along with reading through the add-on documentation. What else can I try, please?

 

Cheers,

 

Áine

 


Re: Notepad++ add on - getting it to work?

Luke Davis
 

1. Which version of NVDA are you running?
2. What version of the NotepadPlusPlus add-on are you running?
3. What version of Notepad++ are you running?

Luke


Re: Notepad++ add on - getting it to work?

Jacob Kruger
 

Ok, then, double-check under add-ons manager that it's appearing, and marked as active?


Jacob Kruger
Blind Biker
"Resistance is futile...but, acceptance is versatile..."

On 2019-09-06 11:12 AM, Aine Kelly Costello wrote:
No, I looked there in the tree view and it doesn't appear ... 

On 6/09/2019, at 10:48 AM, Jacob Kruger <jacob@...> wrote:

While focused on notepad++, activate NVDA menu, preferences, and input gestures, and then, double-check to see if there's a tree view item for notepad++, with something like 6 commands listed under it?


That's what shows up here on my laptop?


Jacob Kruger
Blind Biker
"Resistance is futile...but, acceptance is versatile..."
On 2019-09-05 9:44 PM, George Kerscher wrote:

Hi,

 

I have not tested all the features, but you could try NVDA+shift+backslash, which should announce the linenumber , column number and what is selected.

 

If that works, the add on is working. I have not gotten the MD function to work, but I have not spent a lot of time on it.


Best

George

 

 

From: nvda@nvda.groups.io <nvda@nvda.groups.io> On Behalf Of Aine Kelly Costello
Sent: Thursday, September 5, 2019 11:27 AM
To: nvda@nvda.groups.io
Subject: [nvda] Notepad++ add on - getting it to work?

 

Hi all,

 

I’m not sure what I’m doing wrong. The Notepad++ addon says it’s installed and add-on manager says it’s enabled, but it doesn’t actually appear to be working, seeing as none of the keyboard shortcuts I’ve been trying are doing anything. I’m using the English US international keyboard.

 

I’ve tried restarting NVDA and the computer, along with reading through the add-on documentation. What else can I try, please?

 

Cheers,

 

Áine

 


Re: Notepad++ add on - getting it to work?

Aine Kelly Costello
 

No, I looked there in the tree view and it doesn't appear ... 

On 6/09/2019, at 10:48 AM, Jacob Kruger <jacob@...> wrote:

While focused on notepad++, activate NVDA menu, preferences, and input gestures, and then, double-check to see if there's a tree view item for notepad++, with something like 6 commands listed under it?


That's what shows up here on my laptop?


Jacob Kruger
Blind Biker
"Resistance is futile...but, acceptance is versatile..."
On 2019-09-05 9:44 PM, George Kerscher wrote:

Hi,

 

I have not tested all the features, but you could try NVDA+shift+backslash, which should announce the linenumber , column number and what is selected.

 

If that works, the add on is working. I have not gotten the MD function to work, but I have not spent a lot of time on it.


Best

George

 

 

From: nvda@nvda.groups.io <nvda@nvda.groups.io> On Behalf Of Aine Kelly Costello
Sent: Thursday, September 5, 2019 11:27 AM
To: nvda@nvda.groups.io
Subject: [nvda] Notepad++ add on - getting it to work?

 

Hi all,

 

I’m not sure what I’m doing wrong. The Notepad++ addon says it’s installed and add-on manager says it’s enabled, but it doesn’t actually appear to be working, seeing as none of the keyboard shortcuts I’ve been trying are doing anything. I’m using the English US international keyboard.

 

I’ve tried restarting NVDA and the computer, along with reading through the add-on documentation. What else can I try, please?

 

Cheers,

 

Áine

 


Re: Notepad++ add on - getting it to work?

Jacob Kruger
 

While focused on notepad++, activate NVDA menu, preferences, and input gestures, and then, double-check to see if there's a tree view item for notepad++, with something like 6 commands listed under it?


That's what shows up here on my laptop?


Jacob Kruger
Blind Biker
"Resistance is futile...but, acceptance is versatile..."

On 2019-09-05 9:44 PM, George Kerscher wrote:

Hi,

 

I have not tested all the features, but you could try NVDA+shift+backslash, which should announce the linenumber , column number and what is selected.

 

If that works, the add on is working. I have not gotten the MD function to work, but I have not spent a lot of time on it.


Best

George

 

 

From: nvda@nvda.groups.io <nvda@nvda.groups.io> On Behalf Of Aine Kelly Costello
Sent: Thursday, September 5, 2019 11:27 AM
To: nvda@nvda.groups.io
Subject: [nvda] Notepad++ add on - getting it to work?

 

Hi all,

 

I’m not sure what I’m doing wrong. The Notepad++ addon says it’s installed and add-on manager says it’s enabled, but it doesn’t actually appear to be working, seeing as none of the keyboard shortcuts I’ve been trying are doing anything. I’m using the English US international keyboard.

 

I’ve tried restarting NVDA and the computer, along with reading through the add-on documentation. What else can I try, please?

 

Cheers,

 

Áine

 


Re: Scope of the Calibre addon

Mallard
 

Yes, that's Ebook-converter Gui, which I still have, but it's only for converting ebooks, and not for reading them.


The Calibre menus have become somewhat more accessible with the advent of QT5, as far as I understand, but the text within the viewer is still unreadable by screen readers.


I don't now whether text is encrypted or what, but it appears to be presented as an image, even if it's text.

Using Win10 OCR, you can read the text, otherwise nothing doing.


The same thing happens in Sumatra pdf, in both pdf and epub files.


Ciao,

Ollie

Il 05/09/2019 17:54, Blaster ha scritto:
I remembered reading about a modified front-end version of Calibre
that was created by the former owner of the TechTalk list, Carlos,
Since I don't use ePub I can't tell you if this version will do what
you want it to do, but you can download an installer or a portable
version here and you can give it a try:

Calibre front-end installer:
http://opopanax.net/download/Setup_eBook-convert_GUI.exe

Calibre front-end portable:
http://opopanax.net/download/eBook-convert_GUI_Portable.zip

Both versions require that you have Calibre already installed, this is
just a front-end addon.
As Carlos was an NVDA user, I'm sure it will be totally accessible,
here's an excerpt from the readme file:
Calibre is an application for organizing and converting eBooks. It's
ability to convert between many eBook formats is one of it's more
useful features. Unfortunately, it is not very accessible and
although you can use the included ebook-convert command line utility
to convert files, many people are not comfortable with this approach.
eBook-convert GUI is a so called frontend for the ebook-convert.exe
command line utility. It can convert individual files and entire
folders including subfolders from any supported format to any other.

HTH,
Blaster



On 9/5/19, Mallard <mallard@...> wrote:
Hello Jens,


May I contact you off list?


Ciao,

Ollie




Il 05/09/2019 17:22, Jens Gierke ha scritto:
Hi Ollie,

thank you for your mail.
The copyright argument is really a poor one. As sighted person you can
select text with the mouse in the book and copy it somewhere else.
And the copyright argument becomes even more ridiculous as Calibre
contains an editor for editing ebooks - at least DRM-free ones...
So I will stay unpacking Epubs and read the containing HTML files until
I will find the time to work on a contribution for Calibre...

Best regards,
Jens


Am 04.09.2019 um 13:42 schrieb Mallard:
Hello,


As far as I nkow, ebooks in the Calibre Viewer are presented as images,
or encrypted somehow, so they can't be read. In order to see the text,
you have to use the OCR function in NVDA, which is absolutely out of the
question.


When I asked the devs what is the reason behind this behaviour, I was
told it's because of copyright...


It honestly escapes me why ebooks aer copyrighted only when a blind
person has to read them, while sighted people can read the text without
issues...


I'd somewhat understand this if it applied only to drm-protected books,
but it applies to anything... Even to drm-free books.


Ciao,

Ollie


Il 31/08/2019 14:27, Jens Gierke ha scritto:
Hi,

I'm irritated about the Calibre addon for NVDA. Does it allow reading
ebooks with Calibre or is it only to make use of the converter
capabilities? Even with the addon installed I'm not able to read any
book content in Calibre's ebook viewer. There is no browse mode and
also
the review cursor/object navigation doesn't help.

Best regards,
Jens






Re: ALVA 544 Satellite Traveller braille display with NVDA

Oriana
 

Were you able to get the Braille Extender addon to work?


Re: Weird powerpoint issue

Quentin Christensen
 

Yep, I didn't see your other post before I replied :)


On Fri, Sep 6, 2019 at 10:53 AM Sile via Groups.Io <somodhrain=googlemail.com@groups.io> wrote:
Yes, that’s what we figured out.


On Sep 5, 2019, at 7:51 PM, Quentin Christensen <quentin@...> wrote:

I haven't got a projector handy, but at a guess, your slideshow is using "Presenter view".  Microsoft have a page on it here:  https://support.office.com/en-us/article/present-on-multiple-monitors-and-view-speaker-notes-privately-ccfa1894-e3ef-4955-9c3a-444d58248093

Briefly though, it lets you read the speaker notes for the current slide on your laptop, while showing the slide itself on the external screen.  If you haven't written any speaker notes, you probably won't get much information on the laptop.

You can turn presenter mode off before starting your slideshow (or possibly during it, I'm not sure) by pressing ALT+S for the slide show ribbon, then V to toggle the "Use presenter view" checkbox.

Regards

Quentin.

On Fri, Sep 6, 2019 at 2:27 AM Sile via Groups.Io <somodhrain=googlemail.com@groups.io> wrote:
Hello all


I have recently been getting a weird powerpoint error, that only happens
when I am projecting (either using HDMI or VGA).


When I switch to 'slideshow' view of a presentation, NVDA says
'slideshow complete' and doesn't allow me to read the content of my
slides.  However, I can hit space or enter and the slides will advance
as normal for anyone viewing the presentation.


I have my display set to mirror, but it doesn't seem to matter what it
is set to.


I am using windows 10, and I am running Powerpoint2016.


--Sile







--
Quentin Christensen
Training and Support Manager



--
Quentin Christensen
Training and Support Manager


Re: Weird powerpoint issue

Sile
 

Yes, that’s what we figured out.


On Sep 5, 2019, at 7:51 PM, Quentin Christensen <quentin@...> wrote:

I haven't got a projector handy, but at a guess, your slideshow is using "Presenter view".  Microsoft have a page on it here:  https://support.office.com/en-us/article/present-on-multiple-monitors-and-view-speaker-notes-privately-ccfa1894-e3ef-4955-9c3a-444d58248093

Briefly though, it lets you read the speaker notes for the current slide on your laptop, while showing the slide itself on the external screen.  If you haven't written any speaker notes, you probably won't get much information on the laptop.

You can turn presenter mode off before starting your slideshow (or possibly during it, I'm not sure) by pressing ALT+S for the slide show ribbon, then V to toggle the "Use presenter view" checkbox.

Regards

Quentin.

On Fri, Sep 6, 2019 at 2:27 AM Sile via Groups.Io <somodhrain=googlemail.com@groups.io> wrote:
Hello all


I have recently been getting a weird powerpoint error, that only happens
when I am projecting (either using HDMI or VGA).


When I switch to 'slideshow' view of a presentation, NVDA says
'slideshow complete' and doesn't allow me to read the content of my
slides.  However, I can hit space or enter and the slides will advance
as normal for anyone viewing the presentation.


I have my display set to mirror, but it doesn't seem to matter what it
is set to.


I am using windows 10, and I am running Powerpoint2016.


--Sile







--
Quentin Christensen
Training and Support Manager